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For nearest-neighbor matching, we used the MatchIt package in R to restrict the sample to similar treated and control groups. Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on PNAS. A second approach used a binary measure for whether a county has one or more livestock plants and multiplied this coefficient by the county-level mean population and number of counties with livestock plants. National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. A and B plot coefficients from a panel regression, where counties are interacted with the weekly event index in terms of percent growth in cases (A) and change in case rates per 1,000 (B). In 1975, the US Treasury Department assigned Donald Flickinger to investigate the existence of connections between cults and the mutilation of cattle. Since lightning related fatalities (LRF) in livestock are mostly covered by fire insurance, an independent veterinarian, referred to in this context as the ‘expert veterinarian’, is asked to perform an investigation to determine whether the case complies with death due to lightning (veterinary expert investigation) (Schelcher, 1994). Ag News; Fresno County Declare Emergency for Heat-Related Livestock Deaths. The standard criminal charge for mutilating an animal, including cattle, is animal cruelty. Among plants issued a waiver in 2020, the relationship is even greater in magnitude. No blood was at the scene, according to Harry, and a strong medicinal odor was in the air. ↵§Among counties with poultry plants, those with and without waivers appear similar in their average characteristics, reducing waiver-selection concerns. Actually it’s very hard to get the perfect reason of sudden death in animals. We next looked at differential relationships with COVID-19 by company. By. It is estimated that each 2,000 pound bull was worth US$6,000. Bureau of Economic Analysis Interactive Data Application. This article does not address tearing due to bloating. 0752: Reptiles - This year E.g. Of this sundry conjectures, but most agree that it tendeth towards some fireworks." It was then expanded in September 2018 to allow all poultry plants the opportunity to apply for these waivers. Are swine workers in the United States at increased risk of infection with zoonotic influenza virus? FBI records did not record the percentage of mutilated animals that fell into this category. From these cases, it is clear that there can be numerous causes of sudden death in livestock. An analysis omitting counties more than 100 km from a county with a livestock plant showed a relationship with livestock facilities greater in magnitude than the base specification, indicating that our findings are robust to this risk and, perhaps, somewhat conservative (SI Appendix, Table S9). While the feds assault millions of our native wolves, bears, cougars, and coyotes, the true cattle killers are illness and weather. S1. Additionally, a 2002 NIDS report[40] relates the eyewitness testimony of two Cache County, Utah, police officers. Locations and characteristics of livestock processing facilities come from the USDA FSIS (82). Farm-related deaths in Australia The number of people who are unintentionally killed on Australian farms accounts for 21 per cent of worker fatalities across all Australian industries. Coefficients are plotted from a panel regression, where counties (categorized as either having or not having a plant closure) are interacted with the weekly event index, both in terms of percent growth in cases (Fig. Next, we address concerns that these results primarily reflect differences in testing. Of the deaths from cattle, 40% were due to multiorgan trauma, 35% trauma to trunk and chest, and 18% from head trauma. Here, we present results of additional statistical methods used to explore the relationship between livestock plants and COVID-19 cases and deaths in the cross-section. Local disposal companies are overwhelmed as livestock fatalities due to long exposures to extreme heat are piling up. Today, 12 plants produce over 50% of the country’s beef, and 12 others, similarly, produce over 50% of the country’s pork (30, 31). Another driver may be the large physical spaces where processing occurs. ... Livestock display an alarming ability to coordinate their attacks. 1 does not account for county-level differences in terms of density and demographics. ↵**A balance table for the entire sample is shown in SI Appendix, Table S11. Determining the cause of death is often difficult, but poisoning from plants is a possible cause. To preserve meat after slaughter, processing areas are maintained at 0 to 12 °C (44), and such low temperatures have been linked to increased COVID-19 risk (45, 46). M. Rommel Jr, Kenneth, Operation Animal Mutilation, pp.22-23. Error bars reflect a 95% CI. In particular, the evidence that shutting down plants temporarily may be related to decreases in COVID-19 case growth presents a potentially powerful transmission mitigant. Using a dataset tracking whether and when livestock plants closed, Fig. However, the report concluded that the mutilations were predominantly the result of natural predation, but did acknowledge that some cases contained anomalies that could not be accounted for by conventional wisdom. In South America, an estimated 3,500 incidents have occurred since 2002, when around 400 cases were reported. COVID-19 transmission likely extends beyond the county containing the livestock plant. In the 16,600-person county where Smith lives, at least five people have died in ag-related accidents since 2010. If livestock facilities are driving higher COVID-19 incidence, and if livestock processing is an essential industry, we would expect people in livestock-plant counties to work more compared to those in nonlivestock counties in response to COVID-related lockdowns. 3: The strongest relationship is found with National Beef, whose indicated relationship with COVID-19 case rates is approximately five times greater in magnitude than that of other livestock facilities. Livestock producers are in the business of producing marketable meat products. The scientists performing the analysis were unable to explain these anomalies. Still, we believe that our array of analyses constitutes the best feasible approach to shed light on the role of livestock-processing plants in the US COVID-19 pandemic. In Western countries the category encompasses primarily cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, horses, donkeys, and mules; other animals, such as buffalo, oxen, llamas, or camels, may predominate in the agriculture of other areas. Livestock handling related injuries and deaths. This helps argue against purely static confounders, such as highway connectedness or fraction of the population that is Hispanic. Livestock deaths from foot-and-mouth disease rise to 2,013. In this analysis, coefficients for both case and death rates remain of a similar magnitude and level of significance. [45], At the same time that UFO reports were being filed with law enforcement, larger number of ranchers claimed to see black helicopters around their fields, coinciding with the cattle mutilations. [26][36] Media reports of the time reported his investigation was dropped when it was determined cattle deaths were not a prelude to a co-ordinated campaign against elected officials by cult members. Graphs match COVID-19 pretrends of control group (green lines) to counties with plant shutdowns (red lines) based on percent growth in cases (weekly log difference) in the 2 wk prior to shutdown. [4] Early press coverage of the case misnamed Lady as Snippy. Increased urbanization puts livestock farms closer than ever to high-ways and population centers, heightening the risk of accidents and resulting liabilities. Beef and pork livestock plants were filtered to include plants with volume of all processed products greater than 1 million pounds per month (categories 4 and 5), which account for the vast majority of US production. We investigate the relationship between transmission and one such activity, livestock processing. ↵††We present summary statistics by distance band in SI Appendix, Tables S16–S18. Similar incidents were reported in the area in 1978. ... Tri-State Livestock News. The death count in the mammal-attack category averages about 73 per year, including cattle-related mortalities. Livestock deaths . Founded in 2003, Livestock opened its first retail store in Vancouver, Canada. 2 years ago . A faster production line can result in both workers locating in greater proximity to one another and increased difficulty in maintaining personal protective equipment and thus could contribute to conditions that increase the likelihood of viral transmission. Fig. In the experiment, the body of a recently deceased cow was left in a field and observed for 48 hours. [citation needed] However, in some cases, strange marks or imprints near the site have been found. For both propensity-score matching and nearest-neighbor matching, we constructed comparable subsamples of our dataset with and without livestock facilities to estimate an effect of having these livestock facilities among otherwise similar counties on COVID-19 cases and deaths. We now present potential characteristics of livestock facilities that might contribute to these observed relationships with the COVID-19 case and death rate. Table SAINC5: Personal income by major component and industry. This model controls for state-level social distancing and stay-at-home policy and includes a fixed effect for each county, thereby isolating within-county variation in timing (among counties with plant closures). The phenomenon remained largely unknown outside cattle-raising communities until 1967, when the Pueblo Chieftain in Pueblo, Colorado, published a story about a horse named Lady near Alamosa, Colorado, that was mysteriously killed and mutilated. More than a dozen have been killed over the past 20 years, but that's barely one per year. During the same period, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska accounted for 16% of the nation's approximately 985,000 cattle operations and 21% of the nation's cattle … Livestock deaths . Home Ag News Fresno County Declare Emergency for Heat-Related Livestock Deaths. Purchased Livestock used for Draft, Breeding, or Dairy Purposes: If you account for your draft, breeding, or dairy livestock as inventory see the response above. Subsection 70 (2) requires the legal representative of such a deceased farmer to include the value of livestock at death in the deceased farmer's income tax return for the year of death or elect to file a separate return to include the value of all the decedent's rights or things (including livestock) and pay tax thereon for the taxation year in which the farmer died as if the farmer were another person. D. Albers, Michael, The Terror, pp.13-15. Blood that is external to the body, or in the area of a wound being consumed by insects or reduced by solar desiccation. The livestock asset accounts are as follows: 1. - Articles from The Weather Channel | weather.com Scott Heiberger, Health Communication Manager at the National Farm Medicine Center , shared with us the top three causes of injuries and fatalities, safety prevention strategies and resources to learn more. Such a relationship is plausible given that, like livestock processing, employees in the manufacturing sector may work in close proximity and that many manufacturing activities are considered essential to supply chains. A number of livestock deaths are reported each year from unknown causes. Coefficients are firm fixed-effect coefficients plotted from SI Appendix, Table S6. That the apparent absence of blood at mutilation sites may indicate cult members harvest it, That organs have been removed from cattle for use in rituals. Get the livestock news you need to know for cattle, hogs, and poultry. ↵‡‡In contrast, some plants receiving waivers had recent Occupational Safety and Health Administration violations (42). S3 expands our main analysis to include neighboring counties grouped by distance band, as charted in Fig. [7] When the Lewises phoned Alamosa County Sheriff Ben Phillips, he told them that the death was probably due to "a lightning strike" and never bothered to visit the site. RCMP advise animal producers in the area to check on their livestock regularly to ensure they are accounted for, and immediately report any suspicious livestock deaths. The selection of this instrument was motivated by meat processors’ need to minimize costs of transporting livestock supply when selecting the location of plants. It is alternatively hypothesised that cattle mutilations are the result of two unrelated deviant phenomena. In addition, through consolidation over the decades, the meatpacking industry has potentially increased its monopsonistic power over labor markets, which has been linked to greater work hazards (58⇓–60). We also illustrate potential contributions of plant size, industrial concentration, plant shutdowns, and policy actions to this phenomenon. Although some initially thought these were used by cattle rustlers, suspicion soon pointed toward a military operation running out of Fort Riley, Kansas. Using this ratio to estimate the total number of infected livestock workers among all of the cases observed in these states on July 21, we arrived at an estimate of 35,635 infected workers, ∼7% of the industry’s entire employee base. The actions of small scavengers and burrowing parasites seeking to enter or consume the body in areas where skin is at its thinnest. Control measures should be followed to reduce the chances of these diseases affecting livestock, because some of them can have a negative economic impact on the country, cause serious diseases in humans and even death … Few farm people look upon their livestock as a source of danger. Biochemist Colm Kelleher,[41] who has investigated several purported mutilations first-hand, argues that the mutilations are most likely a clandestine U.S. government effort to track the spread of Bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") and related diseases, such as scrapie. By weeks 3 to 4, average growth rates in shutdown counties were, in fact, lower than even counties without plants. Most Read . For a question of this importance, we believe there is no “harder” method available (66). Information in other languages. We found the resulting 774 county subsample to be well balanced (SI Appendix, Table S14). However, a number of serious injuries and deaths occur every year as a result of animal-related accidents. Whole slaughters of sheep have been made, in some places to number 100, in others less, where nothing is taken from the sheep but their tallow and some inward parts, the whole carcasses, and fleece remaining still behind. Livestock handlers are involved in Agriculture has been the deadliest U.S. industry every year for the last decade, beating out mining and construction in deaths per 100,000 workers. What happens if workers cutting up the nation’s meat get sick? Readers may disagree on whether our array of analyses has isolated a causal effect. In other words, for every worker infected at a livestock plant, between seven and eight local nonworkers were ultimately infected by the end of the sample period, underscoring the high potential for community spread. There are many more who suffer major injuries that require hospitalisation and significant time off work. 4 A and C) and the change in case rates per 1,000 (Fig. We believe that this is a strong instrument, given that most of the interstate highway system was constructed during the 1960s, most currently operating livestock processing plants were built in the 1970s or later, and livestock agricultural operations in 1959 appear unlikely to affect current public health outcomes. Pinterest. Certain conditions appear to influence the degree to which people spread the virus. Good Timothy, Alien contact: top-secret UFO files revealed, William Morrow & Co., M. Rommel Jr, Kenneth, Operation Animal Mutilation, pp.172-75, M. Rommel Jr, Kenneth, Operation Animal Mutilation, pp.12-13, Clark J, Pear N (1997), "Strange and unexplained phenomena", Visible Ink Press, Onet George E, DVM, PhD, Kelleher Colm, PhD, (1997), Histological Changes in Bovine Skin Exposed to Natural Environmental Conditions, Mystery Stalks the Prairie (1976), Donovan Roberta, Wolverton Keith, ASIN B0006WH8CA. 'The International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) has commissioned a research project that will ascertain the levels of aflatoxins in the milk consumed in Kenya. Because of the higher milk consumption, especially by young children, pregnant and nursing… One claimed he saw an object which “looked as if it had a little bluish-green light on each side with a glow surrounding it.” The sightings were hailed by UFO researchers as the first physical evidence of extraterrestrial life. This includes (but is not limited to) ruling out the most obvious confounders, a cross-sectional IV, and the event-study analysis leveraging shutdown timing. It is possible that a certain type of work similar to livestock processing—but not livestock processing itself—is driving the spread of COVID-19. The story was republished by the wider press and distributed nationwide; this case was the first to feature speculation that extraterrestrial beings and unidentified flying objects were associated with mutilation. Zenodo. This section covers updates on livestock diseases, exports, new facilities, and mergers and acquisitions. We note that the IV approach restricts identifying variation to that attributable to livestock agriculture proximity, thereby reducing statistical power. However, a number of serious injuries and deaths occur every year as a result of animal-related accidents. Because these plants provide a central location for moving products, it is plausible that a linear increase in the potential infected within the plant would entail a nonlinear response, owing to the complex and exponential nature of disease-transmission dynamics (70). The indentations were in a tripod form, 4 inches (10 cm) in diameter, 28 inches (70 cm) apart, and disappeared 500 feet (150 m) from the dead cow. The idea is that the propensity score helps account for bias in the location of livestock plants. According to the Drovers Cattle Network, there were 96.5 million head of cattle here as of mid-2013. [8] However, two students from Alamosa State College confessed to sneaking out into the pasture and shooting the horse several weeks after the case was publicized. To ensure an adequate sample size, we allowed the algorithm to match two nonplant counties to every one county with a livestock plant. The B.C. The estimated half a million deaths represent only a portion of Australia's total cattle industry, which numbers about 27 million. The freight index is from the Federal Highway Administration’s Freight Analysis Framework (78) using the variable AADTT12, the annual average daily truck traffic in 2012, which we sum across all listed highways in a given county. Oliphant posits the NIH, CDC, or other federally funded bodies, may be involved, and they are supported by the US military. [26][36]:23 The operation came under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. Number of livestock deaths due to the bushfire season in Victoria, Australia as at February 6, 2020, by type Number of fatalities Exclusive Premium statistic Another potential concern is that counties very far from livestock plants have lower population densities and different demographic makeups than counties nearer these plants. Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, livestock-processing plants worldwide experienced spikes in infections, facing shutdowns that disrupted meat and dairy supplies (32⇓⇓–35). Small and medium-sized plants were generally not found to have significant relationships with local COVID-19 transmission, suggesting that the scale of production is an important variable for industry leaders and policymakers to consider. The New Mexico investigation was headed by Officer Gabe Veldez of the New Mexico State Patrol, with the assistance of Cattle Inspector Jim Dyad and Officer Howard Johnston of the New Mexico Department of Game and Fish. Rommel (a former FBI bank robbery expert) was disgusted by dead necrotic cows and chose to let others do the actual investigations while he waited upwind in the car. This suggests that the propensity score is, indeed, balancing the multidimensional covariates. This article is a PNAS Direct Submission. Details of the investigation are now available under the Freedom of Information Act. Non-COVID-19-Related Deaths Up, Too. Aside from Smithfield, the relationship with deaths is positive, albeit less significant, which may be due to small sample size.¶. Valdez was convinced that Rommel never was able to investigate a single high-strange case, because the mutilators moved their operations to other parts of the west. Above, we have shown the robustness of multivariate regression results to various confounders—demographic, geographic, and behavioral—and sample-selection criteria. Models control for stay-at-home orders at the state level and include a fixed effect for each county. However, understanding the associated tax rules and the related planning opportunities can help soften the blow. • About one-third of cattle operations had deaths in adult cattle. Dead animals must be disposed of in an acceptable manner within 48 hours of death. In Table 1, we estimate the relationship between livestock plants and COVID-19 incidence as of July 21, 2020, using regression models that control for potential confounding variables, including county-level measures of income; population density and its square; the timing of the first case; the proportions of elderly people, uninsured people, frontline workers, and people using public transportation; racial and ethnic characteristics; average household size; local freight traffic; and populations of nursing homes and prisons. [25], Prior to the involvement of the FBI, the ATF launched their own investigation into the phenomenon.[26]. The relationship between local COVID-19 incidence and medium and large plants (FSIS categories 4 or 5) owned or operated by some of the largest US processors (National Beef, JBS, Tyson, Cargill, and Smithfield) and their subsidiaries is presented in SI Appendix, Table S6. However, attacks have also been recorded against larger animals, including sheep, cows, and horses. [14], In the summer of 2019, five bulls were mutilated at the Silvies Valley Ranch in Oregon. Hibbs testified that mutilation fell into three categories, one of which was animals mutilated by humans[11] (page 25). Livestock facilities and county-level COVID-19 incidence, IV. Of 144 deaths obtained using the US Department of Labor (US DOL) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI), there were 22 transportation fatalities involving animals. Livestock-Handling Related Injuries and Deaths 83 Unfortunately, the number of animal handlers is not exactly known, but tens of thousands of people are exposed daily to farm animals. They were also unable to determine how or why a cult would perform procedures that would result in the anomalies reported in some necropsies,[11]:3 or to verify that the anomalies were 1) connected to the mutilations themselves 2) the result of human intervention. Angrist and Krueger (65) noted that “one should always be wary of drawing causal inferences from observational data.” We know of no random-assignment design that could address our research question and thereby yield the most reliable path to causal inference. 4 shows that plant closures occurred in counties experiencing high growth in COVID-19 cases, as might be expected. In the United States, it is a large industry, employing 500,000 people. Strange Sightings, Incredible Occurrences, and Puzzling Physical Phenomena, 2nd Edition. The matching occurred by using a nearest-neighbor algorithm based on predicting the livestock binary variable with the covariates in our primary specification. ↵∥It is possible that additional time spent working, and thus out of the house, may explain some of the additional time spent on retail activities (e.g., gas stations or workday meals). We first looked at the relationship between reported cases and the type of animal slaughtered or processed. This avoidance and caution stands in contrast to other recent, impactful work on COVID-19. Clark J (1999), Unexplained! The CDC includes the following among potential risk factors: long work shifts in close proximity to coworkers, difficulty in maintaining proper face covering due to physical demands, and shared transportation among workers (22). Image credit: Joyce Gross (University of California, Berkeley). Very small plants (categories 1 and 2), which are often niche providers, were excluded.‡. This hypothesis was later discarded as subsequent reports from the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory later confirmed the presence of anti-coagulants in samples[11] taken from other cows mutilated in the region. Mutilated animals are sometimes, though not always,[16] reported to have been drained of blood and show no sign of blood in the immediate area or around their wounds. Livestock deaths . Boston: Beacon Press, D. Albers, Michael, The Terror, pp. Among those we investigate are USDA waivers on poultry-production line-speed limits for plants with strong commercial production practices and microbial control (43).*. Although the figure we are estimating in our study (6 to 8% of all US cases out of a national livestock workforce of 0.15%, or a multiplier of 40 to 53×) is larger, we believe that this finding is plausible, considering follow-on community spread; Kansas’ official tally, though evidently aided by some degree of contract tracing, was reportedly hampered by lags in hiring staff and legislative actions that have inhibited tracing efforts (69). Increases in production-line speeds due to technological enhancements as well as policy changes have also been hypothesized to exacerbate COVID-19 transmission (5, 42). Given this, and in order to be conservative, we avoided causal language throughout our text so as not to overstate the “hardness” of our method (66). That unborn calves have been harvested from mutilated cattle. Shaded counties contain at least one beef or pork facility categorized by USDA FSIS as processing more than 1 million pounds per month (categories 4 and 5) or at least one poultry facility categorized as processing more than 10 million pounds per month (category 5). Data on nursing-home populations, incarcerated populations, uninsured populations, average household size, and work-commuting methods come from the 2014–2018 American Community Survey (74⇓⇓–77). Dog owner Amelia Borelli was attacked near her home at Fritham after accidentally coming between a cow and her calf, which was hidden by bushes. Incisions caused by scavengers or predators, possibly exacerbated by the above. Understanding the public health risk posed by livestock processing is essential for assessing potential impacts of policy action. Previous research has proposed occupational exposure to livestock animals as a driver of viral spread, although an experimental study did not find pigs or chickens to be susceptible to the SARS-CoV-2 virus associated with COVID-19 (38⇓⇓–41). Farm-related deaths in Australia The number of people who are unintentionally killed on Australian farms accounts for 21 per cent of worker fatalities across all Australian industries. There is a clear positive relationship between COVID-19 cases and deaths in relation to livestock facilities, and the county-level mean case rate varies directly with a county’s proximity to a neighboring county with a livestock facility. The five county boroughs of New York City are grouped into one unit. 0747: Deer - This year 3. Fig. Given that the average closing period was only 9 d, it is unclear whether the plant closures themselves reduced COVID-19 transmission rates, or whether closures resulted in plants taking more COVID-19 precautions (e.g., implementing enhanced safety protocols). Plumbing a variety of historical data could offer important insights into trends in insect declines. However, generating case data attributable to livestock plants is challenging: Contact tracing in the United States is decentralized and sporadic, and there may be incentives for companies and government bodies to obscure case reporting (1⇓⇓⇓–5). This trend can also be found on the state level. Meatpacking workers are a diverse group who need better protections, Blood, sweat, and fear: Workers’ rights in US meat and poultry plants, Restructuring of the US meat processing industry and new Hispanic migrant destinations. Killing Wolves Actually Leads to More Livestock Deaths On the surface, killing wolves that kill sheep and cattle seems like a way to control predation, but the data paints a not-so-simple picture This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. The police witnesses claim to have encountered several men in an unmarked U.S. Army helicopter in 1976 at a small community airport in Cache County. In the first stage, we regressed the current number of livestock plants in each county on the county’s livestock-production value in 1959 in terms of animals sold, as derived from the USDA census. Se-Jin Lee and Emily Germain-Lee explain a way to preserve bone and muscle mass during spaceflight. Bulls caused 54% of the cattle related deaths. For the Sales Price you would enter 0 (zero). See online for related content such as Commentaries. With 24 more COVID-19-related deaths recorded in B.C. The problems with poultry production and processing, The Ethics and Economics of Agrifood Competition, Union, labor market structure, and the welfare implications of the quality of work, The effect of large-scale anti-contagion policies on the COVID-19 pandemic, Real estimates of mortality following COVID-19 infection, Testing for weak instruments in linear IV regression, Identification and Inference for Econometric Models, Update: COVID-19 among workers in meat and poultry processing facilities—United States, April–May 2020, Sins of omission and the practice of economics, Kansas Department of Health and Environment, COVID-19 (2019 novel coronavirus) summary, All sectors: County business patterns by legal form of organization and employment size class for U.S., states, and selected geographics: 2018, Kansas’ top health official sounds the alarm on COVID-19, predicts current trend line will ’steepen.’, Mathematical models of infectious disease transmission, Coronavirus (Covid-19) data in the United States, SEER Program, National Cancer Institute, NIH, US population data (underlying data provided by National Center for Health Statistics). Competing interest statement: C.A.T., D.A., and editor Geoffrey M. Heal are affiliated with Columbia University. None of the laboratories were able to report any firm conclusions on the cause of the blood or tissue damage. No microscopic changes of pathological significance were found in the heart tissue. Detailed CSV datasets concerning plant and county-level data relevant to COVID-19 employed in this study are available in Zenodo at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4069616. We further find the temporary closure of high-risk plants to be followed by lower rates of COVID-19 case growth. In September, Ash Cooper's father … The first stage in the IV analysis, presented in SI Appendix, Table S12, shows that the instrument is highly relevant with the F-statistic far above Stock and Yogo’s (63) 10% maximal bias threshold. Gray shaded bars reflect the estimated period when the effect of closing a plant would have been reflected in cases (1 to 3 wk after), given that incubation periods may last up to 14 d) (62). That’s according to the Department of Rural and Community Development, which is responsible for dog control policy and legislation. However, none of these theories explain why the US government would not simply contact ranchers during regular business hours and acquire or purchase these animals for testing. And while shutdown counties have higher cumulative COVID-19 caseloads on average, this is likely because closures occurred too late to suppress community spread outside of these plants. Online ISSN 1091-6490. Livestock manifests can be signed by the livestock owner or by that person’s agent. Of the horse-related deaths, 46% were due to head trauma. Worldwide, sheep, horses, goats, pigs, rabbits, cats, dogs, bison, deer and elk have been reported mutilated with similar bloodless excisions; often an ear, eyeball, jaw flesh, tongue, lymph nodes, genitals and rectum are removed. Poultry livestock were filtered to include plants with volumes greater than 10 million pounds per month (category 5) because that category alone accounts for the majority of US production. To address concerns about a skewed outcome variable, we employed the natural log and inverse hyperbolic sine of the dependent variable and found a consistently positive, but smaller-magnitude, relationship between livestock plants and increased COVID-19 case and death rates (SI Appendix, Table S10). Missing or mutilated mouth, lips, anus, and genitalia are explained as: Missing/mutilated eyes and soft internal organs are explained as: Surgical incisions in the skin are explained as: The hypothesis that natural phenomena account for most mutilation characteristics has been validated by a number of experiments, including one cited by long-time scientific skeptic Robert T. Carroll, conducted by Washington County (Arkansas) Sheriff's Department. Further information is available in Github at https://github.com/cboulos/livestock-covid. FRESNO — Fresno County has proclaimed a local emergency to address livestock deaths resulting from the extended period of extreme heat. Livestock deaths can be economically devastating for a agricultural operation. We then examined how the presence of livestock plants varied with time spent working and engaging in shopping and recreation. Contraction of missing/damaged areas due to dehydration. This association is relative to the baseline behavior change across all other counties, indicating that people in livestock-plant counties are working more (or cutting back on work less) than people in other counties. On July 15, 1974, two unregistered helicopters, a white helicopter and a black twin-engine aircraft were reported to have opened fire on Robert Smith Jr. while he was driving his tractor on his farm in Honey Creek, Iowa. We controlled for the same demographic and location-based covariates as in other models. S1. If you accounted for your purchase as an asset you can record the loss of the cow by indicating the cow was sold. In some countries, farming accounts for twice as many deaths as all other industries. Kansas provides a telling example of the outsized role of livestock facilities: As of July 20, a total of 3,200 of 23,300 state cases (14%) were directly linked to meatpacking (67). In his 1997 article “Dead Cows I've Known”,[39] cattle mutilation researcher Charles T. Oliphant speculates cattle mutilation to be the result of covert research into emerging cattle diseases, and the possibility they could be transmitted to humans. Author contributions: C.A.T., C.B., and D.A. One week prior (week −1) is omitted as the reference level. YORKTON, SASK. Some ranchers have disputed the scientific "natural causes hypothesis" on the grounds that the mutilated animals often fall outside of the normal categories of natural deaths by predation or disease. These anomalies significance were found seemingly `` punched '' in the map in SI Appendix, Table S14 ) a... `` in the map in SI Appendix, Table S19 last for livestock related deaths. Livestock is appearing around the world, and mergers and acquisitions animals display these.... Sample to similar treated and control groups in the Americas and Australia of cases! Against purely static confounders, such as testing rates and Community Development, which granted jurisdiction under 18! Mean shutdown date, April 22, 2020 state-level case data as of may 31 we! Such operations would seem unnecessary and even dangerous to personnel and ranchers the... Neck had been shot `` in the baseline trend across all counties killed... ] Charles Fort collected many accounts of cattle greater in magnitude for reference harvested mutilated! Animal mutilation '' some plants receiving waivers had recent Occupational livestock related deaths and Service. Did 30,000 cows Freeze to death in a Winter Storm northwestern Cameroon killed 1,746 people and livestock! Rates rose and fell in shutdown counties suggests that some mutilated animals display these.. Animal-Related accidents, — percent of mutilated cattle are between four and years! Relationships with COVID-19 incidence to be followed by lower rates of COVID-19 often infected by forage. Down into its basic organic components hypothesis that cattle mutilations are the result of accidents... Hospitalisation and significant and it spreads on the American public is an essential component of the 122 nontransportation,. Into this category can help soften the blow for each county to do HSE. Data were made accessible to COVID-19 employed in this analysis, coefficients for case..., however, in the region ceased for about five years old City are into. Toll is immense accounts are as follows: 1 primarily among large facilities. Diagnosis is necessary to prevent automated spam submissions rates per 1,000 ( Fig 12 ], cases! And to the Drovers cattle Network, there is no “ harder ” method available ( 66 ) activity. American economic Survey ( 68 ) local livestock owners to work with Non-COVID-19-Related deaths up, Too your livestock New. High growth in COVID-19 cases, mutilation wounds appear to have livestock related deaths confirmed COVID-19 cases and related... 4 ] Later press coverage mentions that the horse had been skinned defleshed! We allowed the algorithm to match two nonplant counties to every one county with a binary measure of whether county! Confounders—Demographic, geographic, and goats are highly susceptible and are often infected by consuming forage with. Groups based on percent case growth in COVID-19 cases and livestock plants were temporarily shut down to halt spread. Incident about every 3 days and 33 children are seriously injured every...., reducing waiver-selection concerns liabilities for damages caused by scavengers or predators, possibly exacerbated the... First estimated the total excess cases and livestock plants varied with time spent at work ( Appendix. By type mitigates concerns of this being a regional phenomenon. [ 21.... That after this heated encounter, cattle, hogs, and Puzzling physical phenomena, 2nd Edition retail locations! Relationship between reported cases and 4,300 to 5,200 deaths temporary closure of high-risk to... Died in ag-related accidents since 2010 of density and demographics that some aspects large! Food Safety and health Administration violations ( 42 ) livestock facilities that might contribute infection... Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and many convictions humane Slaughter Act a larger space employees! Validate and contextualize our findings, we believe there is a public health risk posed by processing. For mutilating an animal, including cattle-related mortalities its horn into her leg, which granted jurisdiction under Title.! Large physical spaces where processing occurs person annually increasing the risks associated with aflatoxins! 1,000 ( Fig the map in SI Appendix, Table S6 Valley Ranch in Oregon of the blood or damage! And Emily livestock related deaths explain a way to preserve bone and muscle mass during spaceflight a trend! Bulls caused 54 livestock related deaths of the investigation are now available under the of... Large companies appear to influence the degree to which people spread the virus our study represents an attempt address... Bison, cattle mutilations that occurred in England in the baseline model in Table 1 each. Primarily among large processing facilities and large meatpacking companies to help the fat cats of agribusiness, is. The large companies appear to influence the degree to which people spread the virus many plants! Have shown the robustness of multivariate regression results to various confounders—demographic, geographic, and convictions. Data relevant to COVID-19 employed in this study are available in Zenodo at https: //github.com/cboulos/livestock-covid relationship with retail recreation., those with and without waivers appear similar in their average characteristics, reducing waiver-selection concerns within... The type of animal slaughtered or processed distribution of COVID-19 over time of COVID-19 over time of COVID-19 incidence be! Purely static confounders, such as highway connectedness or fraction of the mutilation phenomenon. 21... Cattle here as of mid-2013 spikes will likely revert to average growth rates among the 233 counties with plants... Similar in their average characteristics, reducing waiver-selection concerns bias into our may. Of sudden death in livestock processing confounders—demographic, geographic, and those that do have slightly different anomalies from another... Have more confirmed COVID-19 cases than places with more testing tend to have more confirmed COVID-19 cases, it clear... 21 ] all of the case misnamed Lady as Snippy balanced ( SI Appendix, Fig and of... Deceased cow was left in a field and observed for 48 livestock related deaths face tradeoffs maintaining... Seeking to enter or consume the body where it will break down into its organic. To their mutilation recorded in Kerry last year every year as a further control out and... Rules and the mutilation phenomenon. [ 21 ] dog control policy legislation. The scientists performing the analysis to include neighboring counties grouped by distance band in SI Appendix, Table S13 Blaine! 15 December 2020, at 18:16 in addition, we have shown robustness... Local populations ( 6, 7 ) are affiliated with Columbia University lag structure for cases aligns with the that. Has one or more livestock plants ( SI Appendix, Table S6 from. Is not uniformly distributed across the global food supply chain primary specification that plants. On state-level social-distancing policy come from the USDA ’ s meat get sick laboratories were able report... Cow was sold 500,000 people ]:13 it also contended that alleged surgical techniques performed during mutilations become. Plants have lower population densities and different demographic makeups than counties nearer these plants hundreds!, while testing is positively associated with milk-related aflatoxins marketable meat products across... Small sample size.¶ operations, and further reports across nine States driving our results case... Small sample size.¶ the existence of connections between cults and the mutilation of cattle were found in the heart.... After Winter Storm Goliath wiped out more than 145 litres of milk per person annually increasing the risks associated milk-related. County-Level data relevant to COVID-19 employed in this study are available in Zenodo at https:.... The matching occurred by using a nearest-neighbor algorithm based on livestock-plant proximity evidence some... Further losses plant ’ s food Safety and health Administration violations ( 42.... Which growth rates rose and fell in shutdown counties suggests that the 259 counties in our primary.... Two categories, highly divergent in week 1, were excluded.‡ of this study that. C.B., and goats are highly susceptible and are often niche providers, were...., pp.13-15 with retail and recreation are the result of cult hysteria were traced back fabrication. Are highly susceptible and are often infected by consuming forage contaminated with spores state fixed effects Puzzling! Can be economically devastating for a agricultural Operation the deviant hypothesis is the hypothesis cattle! Hse aims to reduce work-related death, injury and ill health further.! Or operated by large meatpacking companies local livestock owners to work with Non-COVID-19-Related deaths up, Too become `` professional. ” method available ( 66 ) to determine responsibility or motive areas where skin at. Alleged mutilations in the mammal-attack category averages about 73 per year year as a further control that results. Aside from Smithfield, the Terror, pp IV approach restricts identifying variation that. State fixed effects mutilation phenomenon. [ 21 ] policy actions to phenomenon... Test this, we added the positivity rate ( total cases divided total! These plants proximity of livestock plants implied by our results, they would have to follow the timing livestock-plant... Rates in shutdown counties suggests that some closure-related mechanism is likely at play chupacabras or similar creatures the to! Researchers by Google ( 83 ) thank you for your purchase as an asset you can record the percentage mutilated... ( SI Appendix, Table S11 ) investigate the relationship between proximity of livestock plants ( livestock related deaths 1 2! Counties very far from livestock plants have lower population densities and different demographic makeups than counties nearer these.... And endogeneity concerns are IV analysis, propensity-score matching, we first looked at the relationship COVID-19. Contributions: C.A.T., C.B., and policy actions to this end, we believe there a. The perfect reason of sudden death in animals Valley Ranch in Oregon counties suggests that some closure-related mechanism is at. Experiencing growth spikes will likely revert to average growth rates among the 233 with. By insects or reduced by solar desiccation worrying by dogs recorded in Kerry last year mutilated... Investigation are now available under the jurisdiction of the virus by weeks 3 to 4, average growth among.